The gentlemen`s agreement of 1907 (1907) was an informal agreement between the United States of America and the Japanese Empire, according to which the United States would not impose restrictions on Japanese immigration and Japan would no longer allow emigration to the United States. The aim was to ease tensions between the two Pacific nations. The agreement was never ratified by the U.S. Congress and replaced by the Immigration Act of 1924. President Roosevelt had three goals to resolve the situation: to show Japan that California`s policy did not reflect the ideals of the entire country to force San Francisco to lift the policy of segregation and to find a solution to the problem of Japanese immigration. Victor Metcalf, Minister of Trade and Labour, was sent to investigate the problem and force the repeal of the policy. He did not succeed because local officials wanted Japan to be excluded. Roosevelt tried to put pressure on the school, but she would not give in. On February 15, 1907, the parties reached a compromise. If Roosevelt could guarantee the suspension of Japanese immigration, the school administration would allow Japanese-American students to attend public schools.
The Japanese government did not want to harm its national pride or suffer humiliation, as the Qing government in China did in 1882 by the Chinase Exclusion Act. The Japanese government agreed to no longer grant passports to workers attempting to enter the United States unless they came to occupy a formerly acquired house to join a relative; spouse; or to take active control of a previously acquired agricultural holding.  When the Japanese population increased in California, Japan viewed them with suspicion as an invading corner. Until 1905, anti-Japanese rhetoric filled the pages of the San Francisco Chronicle, and Japanese Americans lived not only in Chinatown, but throughout the city. Established in 1905, the Japanese and Korean Exclusion Leagues encouraged four policies: increasing Japanese immigration, in part to replace excluded Chinese agricultural workers, met with concerted opposition in California. In order to appease Californians and avoid an open break with Japan`s emerging world power, President Theodore Roosevelt negotiated this diplomatic agreement, under which the Japanese government took responsibility for severely limiting Japanese immigration, especially of workers, so that Japanese-American children could continue to attend integrated schools on the West Coast. Family migration could continue, however, as Japanese-American men with sufficient savings could bring wives through arranged marriages (“picture brides”), their parents and minor children. As a result, the Japan-U.S. population has been more balanced than other Asian-American communities and has continued to grow through natural growth, which has increased pressure to end its immigration and further reduce the rights of the resident population. On April 18, 1906, the San Francisco, California Board of Education separated all students of Japanese origin from the Oriental Public School for Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans. Japanese-Americans were outraged by what they saw as a breach of the 1894 treaty, which had guaranteed them the right to immigration. When the problem accelerated, japanese and U.S.
authorities intervened to maintain diplomatic peace. The 1907 Gentleman`s Agreement collection in DIVA collects primary source documents, including telegrams, letters, and confidential memos from 1906 to 1908 that detail the discussions of Theodoore Roosevelt, Elihu Root, Kazuo Matsubara, and others. . . .